The Bullying Effects Essay
The Bullying Effects Essay is a significant social problem in many countries and poses a serious threat to healthy development during school careers. Research shows that bullying victims tend to become withdrawn, cautious, and insecure. In addition, they exhibit poor psychosocial functioning.
Bullying Effects Essay is the use of force, coercion, hurtful teasing, or threats to abuse, aggressively dominate, or intimidate. The behavior is often repetitive and habitual. An essential condition is the perception of an imbalance of physical or social power. This imbalance distinguishes bullying from conflict. Bullying is a subcategory of aggressive behaviors characterized by hostile intent, an imbalance of power, and repetition over time. Bullying is repeated, aggressive behavior intended to hurt another person physically, mentally, or emotionally.
Consequences for aggressors include delinquent behavior and low levels of happiness. It is argued that bullying is not normal and that children are not capable of dealing with it. Bullying Effects Essay is recognized as a common and widespread form of violence in school contexts in many countries (Smith et al., 1999). Olweus (1993) defines bullying as a subtype of aggressive behavior in which an aggressor intentionally and repeatedly harms a weaker victim either physically and/or psychologically over an extended period. The effects on victims of bullying include low self-esteem, depression, school failure, and in extreme cases, suicide.
Bullying is a significant social problem in many countries and poses a serious threat to healthy development during school careers. Research shows that bullying victims tend to become withdrawn, cautious, and insecure. They also exhibit poor psychosocial functioning. Although victims respond to bullying in a variety of ways, avoidance behaviors are most common (Batsche & Knoff, 1994; Kumpulainen et al., 1998). On the other hand, research suggests that children who are identified as bullying victims adjust less well in school, both in terms of achievement and well-being, and also experience less social support from teachers.
This means that bullying has adverse consequences for both the bullies and the victims. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors associated with bullying and the effects on children’s development. It is argued that bullying is not normal and that children are not capable of dealing with it. Bullying may be common, but it is not normal. Many parents and children underestimate the importance of bullying in today’s society and downplay it. Parents assume that their children are capable of handling bullying, and some parents even believe that their child will be “hardened” by a certain amount of bullying.
However, research has shown that bullying has lifelong destructive consequences for bullying victims. Not only does bullying cause a child to become withdrawn and cautious, but these experiences can have long-term effects on adolescence and adulthood. As a result, their natural ability to make friends and socialize is impaired. Children who are identified as victims also tend to exhibit poor psychosocial functioning. Bullying should not be accepted as a process that children must go through. Bullying is a destructive relationship problem. Children who are victimized carry the pain and fear they have suffered from bullying into their adult relationships.
As a result, these children tend to withdraw from interactions with peers and run the risk of becoming socially anxious. Craig & Pepler (2007) found that once peers learn that a child is being bullied, they are hesitant to intervene for fear of becoming a victim themselves. They distance themselves from the bullied child and may even participate in the bullying in order to be more accepted by those in power. When children are bullied over an extended period of time, they lack the normative social interactions that are critical to their healthy development and the development of relationship skills.
These children also have significant mental health issues. They tend to be more withdrawn, cautious, and insecure. Schwartz (2000) also noted that these children are likely to be less prosocial than uninvolved children for fear of “not belonging” (Hoover, Oliver & Hazler, 1992). Being a victim of bullying can greatly affect a child’s self-esteem and limit his or her potential. Victims become increasingly reluctant to participate in social activities, and some even refuse to attend school to protect themselves from bullying (Kaltiala-Heino, Rimpela, Rantanen, & Rimpela, 2000; Rigby, 2003).
Pepler and Craig (2000) found that children who are frequently bullied have a wide range of problems and need targeted support to move past these abusive interactions. Victims also reported feeling lonelier and less happy at school and having fewer good friends (Boulton & Underwood, 1992; Nansel et al., 2001, 2004). Bullying not only harms everyone involved, but also affects the school climate, which indirectly affects the ability of all students to learn to the best of their ability.
Poor academic performance is a likely consequence of victimization; when children fear being bullied, they are less likely to focus on school work (Card & Hodges, 2008). Children can only withstand a certain amount of pressure before they reach their breaking point. In certain extreme cases, children who cannot withstand the pressure of constant bullying may commit suicide or even mass murders of classmates and teachers. Research suggests that children who are identified as bullies have poorer psychosocial functioning than their classmates.
They adjust more poorly in school, both in terms of their performance and well-being (Nansel et al., 2001, 2004), and perceive less social support from teachers (Demaray & Malecki, 2003). Consequences for aggressors include delinquent behavior (Rigby & Cox, 1996) and low levels of satisfaction (Rigby & Slee, 1993). Haynie et al. (2001) concluded that “bullying may allow children to achieve their immediate goals without learning socially acceptable ways to negotiate with others, resulting in persistent maladaptive patterns” (p. 31).
Perry, Perry & Kennedy (1992) also found that bullies believe they succeed through their aggression, are unconcerned with inflicting pain and suffering, and process information about victims in a rigid and automatic manner. Research by Demaray & Malecki (2003) has shown that bullies are also more difficult in the classroom and are frustrating for teachers. Lessons about power and aggression learned in childhood bullying can lead to sexual harassment (McMaster, Connolly, Pepler & Craig, 2002) and dating aggression (Pepler, Craig, Blais & Rahey, 2005) and later expand to workplace harassment and spousal, child and elder abuse.
These social costs of bullying go beyond the individual and also impact society as a whole. Parental factors play an important role in determining not only whether their children are affected by bullying, but also how well their children cope. Most parents today underestimate the damage bullying can do. Supportive, inclusive, and responsive parenting behaviors are associated with low levels of victimization, whereas child abuse, overprotection (for boys), and threats of rejection (for girls) are associated with greater victimization (Finnegan, Hodges & Perry, 1998; Ladd & Ladd, 1998).
Nansel et al. (2001, 2004) also found that victimization was associated with greater parental involvement in school, possibly reflecting parental awareness of children’s difficulties but also the reduced independence of these youth. Evidence suggests that bullying victims come from homes where parents favor corporal punishment, are sometimes hostile and dismissive, have poor problem-solving skills, and are willing to retaliate at the slightest provocation (Demaray & Malecki, 2003; Loeber & Dishion, 1984).
Therefore, the effects of bullying could be significantly mitigated or even prevented by a significant change in parents’ attitudes. Farrington (1993) found an intergenerational link: parents who were bullied in childhood are likely to have children who bully their peers. Children need help to understand that bullying is wrong, to develop respect and empathy for others, and to learn how to get along with and support others. In summary, bullying is wrong and hurtful. Every child has the right to be safe and free from bullying.
Bullying affects children who are bullied, those who bully others, and those who know about it. There is cause for concern for both aggressors and victims. Research shows that aggressors are at risk for long-term problems with antisocial behavior and substance use (Farrington, 1993; Olweus, 1991) and that children who are victims are at risk for anxiety, depression, and somatic complaints (Olweus, 1993; Rigby, 2003). It is critical to identify children at risk of bullying and/or victimization and to support their development and relationships.
Bullying cannot be completely eradicated, but it is highly preventable. Implementing cooperative learning activities to reduce social isolation, increasing adult supervision at times when bullying is most prevalent, having the school support bullying awareness campaigns, implementing anti-bullying class rules (e.g., role-playing and classroom discussions), improving the overall school environment, and empowering students through peer counseling and conflict resolution programs are all effective ways to minimize bullying.
Effective bullying prevention and intervention interventions for children allow them to develop the skills necessary to build healthy relationships. In this way, we can enable children to improve their normative social interpersonal skills, which are critical to their healthy development.